The identification of fresh molecular targets and biomarkers associated with high

The identification of fresh molecular targets and biomarkers associated with high risk of recurrence and response to therapy represents one of the main clinical challenges in the management of advanced disease in endometrial cancer. biopsy like uterine aspirates. Proteomic and genomic studies focused on liquid-based uterine samples are resulting not only in ideal diagnostic tools but also in reliable approaches to address tumour heterogeneity. Similarly, circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) represent an opportunity for the correct stratification of individuals, for the assessment of early recurrent disease or for the real-time monitoring of therapy reactions. Appropriately designed studies and implementation in medical tests will determine the value of liquid biopsy for precision oncology in endometrial malignancy. mutations. This group offers Nobiletin manufacturer worse prognosis, being predominantly composed of serous carcinomas with some sporadic instances of ECC (primarily EEC3 and some EEC1C2). The incorporation of TCGA surrogate classification into medical practice should carry important advantages in the management of EC individuals [4]. The prognostic value of TCGA in EC has been corroborated in large cohorts included in studies developed by the Vancouver and PORTEC (Post Operative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Carcinoma) organizations [5,6]. This can be especially relevant in adjuvant treatment options for high Nobiletin manufacturer to intermediate-risk EC individuals that are likely to be impacted by the integrated molecular classification [7], while recurrent disease may continue to represent an additional challenge. Despite these stratification conditionings, and as shown in the majority of solid tumours, EC shows intratumour heterogeneity with different neoplastic cell parts within the same tumour. These cells have different morphologic and molecular features that may present a relevant medical impact, especially for the assessment of prognosis and medical management of EC individuals [8]. With this sense, the use of liquid biopsies to diagnose and characterise EC can facilitate the integration of tumour heterogeneity into the therapy selection and monitoring. 2. Liquid Biopsy Nowadays, study efforts are focused on the finding of new non-invasive methods for the analysis and comprehension of the tumour molecular architecture in real time. In comparison with traditional biopsies, the study of the tumour material present in bodily fluids can provide important info for the analysis of tumours with low convenience, or for a more complete overview of tumours in advanced phases where there are different tumour locations to be interrogated. Liquid biopsies also present advantages to monitor the tumour development and the response to therapy with more accuracy than current medical imaging techniques. With this sense, the field of liquid biopsy has emerged as a great revolution in oncology and is considered the way to reach precision medicine. In addition to blood, several other bodily fluids such as saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), uterine aspirates, pleural effusions and even stool have been demonstrated high interest like a noninvasive source of tumour-derived material [9]. This tumour circulating material is mainly composed of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumour miRNA, proteins and exosomes [10]. The analysis of these different types of liquid biopsy has been successfully applied in oncology study during the last two decades, closely linked to Nobiletin manufacturer the development of ultrasensitive methods for their detection. In fact, the main limitation to working with liquid biopsy is the low quantity of tumour material present in blood circulation. For example, in metastatic individuals, the mean CTC level is definitely 1 CTC/106C8 mononuclear cells, while ctDNA is normally less than 0.01%. Fortunately, today we have highly sensitive Rabbit Polyclonal to OPRD1 techniques to tackle liquid biopsy analyses with plenty of guarantees [9]. CTC study is considered the start-point of the liquid biopsy field. Early in the formation and growth of a main tumour, cells are released into the bloodstream. Several organizations are studying the medical good thing about CTC monitoring. CTCs have been validated like a prognostic marker in metastatic breast cancer and additional solid tumours such as prostate, colorectal, and.