However, all cell types suffered from a massive loss in viability 24 hours after encapsulation and polymerization into 10 wt% PEGDA microgels, indicating cells may have initiated apoptosis upon polymerization due to the intense oxidative stress posted on them during ROS conversion (Fig

However, all cell types suffered from a massive loss in viability 24 hours after encapsulation and polymerization into 10 wt% PEGDA microgels, indicating cells may have initiated apoptosis upon polymerization due to the intense oxidative stress posted on them during ROS conversion (Fig. and macro- length scales. We found PEGNB provides excellent cellular tolerance and supports long-term cell survival by mitigating the deleterious effects of acrylate photopolymerization, which are exacerbated at diminishing volumes. PEGNB, therefore, is an excellent candidate for hydrogel miniaturization. PEGNB hydrogel properties, however, were found to have variable effects on encapsulating different cell candidates. This study could provide guidance for cell encapsulation practices in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine research. environment, allowing the elucidation of cellular mechanisms in a well-defined, tunable environment[16,17]. (±)-WS75624B Previous attempts have demonstrated the bulk encapsulation of stem cells[18], fibroblasts[19], and pancreatic -cells[20,21] into hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering, repair, and regenerative medicine, respectively. Chondrogenesis of stem cells[22], migration and activation of fibroblasts[23], and survival and cytokine secretion of pancreatic -cells[24] have been successfully achieved via dynamic control over hydrogel properties, along with understanding of fundamental cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Although bulk cell encapsulation and subsequent implantation has shown promising clinical outcomes[25,26], bulk gels are limited by relatively low diffusivity[27] and a lack of control over individual cell behavior and response to encapsulation, which can result in wide and unpredictable experimental variability. Moreover, the screening and identification of improved matrix formulations is hindered by low experimental throughput and analysis in bulk gels. The clinical and translational potential (±)-WS75624B for bulk gels is also limited by the need to surgically implant large, cellularized hydrogels. Accordingly, forming injectable hydrogels have been widely studied[28,29]. The miniaturization of bulk hydrogel scaffolds into microscale injectable cell carriers has also been more recently demonstrated in combination with a variety of approaches to overcome design constraints inherent to bulk hydrogels[30,31]. These efforts, including liquid bridging[32], stop flow lithography[33], and bioprinting [34,35], have successfully reduced the physical size of individual hydrogels, and therefore decreased diffusion lengths. By coupling these fabrication methods with custom materials chemistry, the functionality of the microgels may be engineered, as with programmed degradation[33,36], directed microgel assembly[37], or controlled cell interactions[38,39] for studies. The production and collection of microgels by these techniques, however, is considerably constrained by the fabrication approach, which dramatically hinders their translational potential. To increase injectable microgel fabrication throughput, while retaining precise control over microgel size and shape, microfluidic-based droplet forming RB1 techniques have introduced the capability to produce monodisperse cell-laden hydrogel-forming droplets at kHz rates[40-45]. Combined with inertial focusing for precise control over intervals between cells[46-48], microfluidic droplet platforms have enabled high throughput single cell encapsulation and subsequent molecular analysis, such as screening and sorting[49-51]. These techniques provide new high throughput methods to explore the heterogeneity of encapsulated cell populations, and thus understand the complex regulatory pathways contributing to the functionality of tissues[52,53]. Post-encapsulation cell viability has been considered (±)-WS75624B as a critical factor allowing for either cell studies, or functional tests. Previous attempts to encapsulate cells into microgels have produced high initial viability, however a dramatic decrease in viability is typically seen over longer time periods[54,55]. Previous studies have considered encapsulation procedures and materials chemistry independently and have determined that (±)-WS75624B microfluidic handling and encapsulation are cell friendly, thus identifying materials chemistry as the primary factor determining postencapsulation viability. As such, polymer and hydrogel chemistry must be further investigated to understand its role in optimizing live cell encapsulation, supporting long-term high cell viability, and providing a salubrious environment for cell growth and tissue elaboration. Pioneering work has demonstrated cell microencapsulation using.

Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: IL-1-induced iNOS expression and NO production in Huh7 cells

Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: IL-1-induced iNOS expression and NO production in Huh7 cells. WT or GRA15-KO Pru for 24 h. The infected THP-1 cells were co-cultured with A172, IMR-32, or T98G cells in the presence or absence of IFN- for 48 h. Level of NO2 released into the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. (B) A172, IMR-32, or T98G cells were left untreated or treated with IFN- for 24 h and then infected with wild-type or GRA15-KO Pru for 24 h. The infected monocytes were co-cultured with primary human neurons in the presence or absence of IFN- for 48 h. Level of NO2 released into the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. Indicated values are means of s.d. (three biological replicates per group from three independent experiments) (ACC) * 0.05; (Student’s is an important human and animal pathogen that triggers life-threatening toxoplasmosis. The sponsor immune system generates interferon- (IFN-) to inhibit proliferation. IFN–inducible indole-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which mediates tryptophan degradation, includes a main part in anti-immune reactions in various human being cells. In response towards the host’s disease fighting capability, secretes many virulence substances into the sponsor cells to suppress IFN–dependent antiparasitic immune system reactions. The GRA15-induced proparasitic system for suppressing IDO1-reliant immune responses offers previously been examined only in human being hepatocyte and monocyte co-cultures. Therefore, whether human being cells apart from hepatocytes contain this virulence system remains unclear. Right here, we show how the GRA15-reliant virulence system for suppressing the IDO1-reliant anti-response operates in human being neuronal cell lines and major human being neurons. Analysis of varied human being cell lines exposed that IL-1-induced iNOS-dependent reduced amount of IDO1 mRNA manifestation occurred in mind cell lines (A172; glioblastoma, IMR-32; neuroblastoma, and T98G; glioblastoma) and liver organ cell lines (Huh7 and HepG2), but not in other cell lines. Moreover, co-culturing type II response in a GRA15-dependent manner. These data suggest that a GRA15-dependent virulence mechanism antagonizes the IDO1-dependent host immune Rabbit polyclonal to KBTBD8 response in human brain cells. is a widespread protozoan that can infect most warm-blooded vertebrates. Contamination with causes toxoplasmosis in humans and animals (Boothroyd, Nimustine Hydrochloride 2009; Dubey, 2010). Nearly Nimustine Hydrochloride one-third of the human population is usually estimated to be infected with infections in healthy individuals remain mostly asymptomatic, immunocompromised individuals often experience damage to their liver, brain, eyes, and other organs, thus resulting in lethal toxoplasmosis (Weitberg et al., 1979; Frenkel and Remington, 1980). In addition, infections potentially lead to congenital toxoplasmosis in fetuses and newborn children via their primarily infected pregnant mothers (Montoya and Remington, 2008). Furthermore, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have recently established toxoplasmosis as a foodborne contamination of global concern (FAO/WHO, 2014). Thus, is usually a common and important zoonotic pathogen. Interferon- (IFN-) and the subsequent induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are essential in anti-host immune responses. Among ISGs, IFN–inducible GTPases, such as p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), and p47 immunity-related GTPases (IRGs), have been shown to be important for clearing in mice (Yamamoto et al., 2009; Gazzinelli et al., 2014). In addition, inducible nitric Nimustine Hydrochloride oxide synthase (iNOS) plays an important role in suppressing growth in mice (Scharton-Kersten et al., 1997). In human cells, IFN–inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), rather than IFN–inducible GTPases, and iNOS, is usually reported to play a major role in inhibiting growth by degrading tryptophan, which is an essential amino acid for intracellular parasitic growth (Pfefferkorn et al., 1986a,b) in many human cell types (Bando et al., 2018b). When infects host cells, various effector Nimustine Hydrochloride molecules are secreted from dense granules to resist the IFN–induced antiparasitic host immune responses in the human cells (Hunter and Sibley, 2012). A dense granule protein TgIST directly inhibits STAT1-mediated IDO1 expression Nimustine Hydrochloride (Rosowski et al., 2014; Olias et al., 2016; Bando et al., 2018b). In addition, we recently found that another dense granule protein GRA15 indirectly inhibits IDO1-dependent anti-responses in human hepatocytes co-cultured with monocytes (Bando et al., 2018a). At length, can proliferate in co-cultures of hepatocytes and monocytes within a GRA15-reliant manner. As the GRA15-reliant virulence system depends on iNOS induction in individual hepatocytes in response to IFN- and IL-1, various other individual cell types that may induce iNOS in response to IL-1 might allow GRA15-reliant proliferation. Nevertheless, which cell types are delicate to GRA15-reliant features when co-cultured with individual monocytes continues to be unclear..

Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary file 1

Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary file 1. types of SLEa spontaneous congenic model as well as the H2-IAbm12 graft-versus-host-induced modelloss of B cell OX40L ameliorates the autoimmune phenotype. This improvement was, in each full case, along with a decrease in T follicular helper cell amounts. Importantly, the germline knockout didn’t exhibit another phenotype through the B cell knockout in these versions markedly. Conclusions These results donate to a model where genetically determined improved OX40L manifestation promotes human being SLE by many systems, contingent on its mobile manifestation. The improvement in pathology in two types of systemic autoimmunity shows that OX40L is a superb therapeutic focus on in SLE. (tumour necrosis element ligand family members, member 4, Compact disc252) can be an founded susceptibility gene for SLE4 5 and for a number of other autoimmune illnesses.6C9 Fine-mapping of the locus in SLE identified two independent association signals upstream of in multiple ancestries.10 Both of these signals align with separate expression quantitative characteristic loci, each one connected with elevated expression of in Epstein Barr virus (EBV) lymphoblastoid cell lines,11 recommending that transcription is upregulated in individuals harbouring risk alleles. encodes the costimulatory molecule, OX40L, a sort II transmembrane proteins expressed on many immune system cell types on activation, including anitigen showing cells?(APCs), such as for example dendritic cells (DCs), B macrophages and cells,12C14 activated T cells,15 16 and?mast cells and vascular endothelial cells.17 On the other hand, its just known receptor, OX40, can be expressed on activated Compact disc4+ mainly?T cells.18C21 The OX40L-OX40 signalling pathway is fundamental for effector T cell memory and proliferation T cell development, maintenance AC-55541 of cytokine creation by T DCs AC-55541 and cells, increasing Ig creation, AC-55541 and promoting plasma cell development.15 22C27 Nevertheless, how these various AC-55541 functions relate with the cell types expressing OX40L continues to be unclear. Constitutive manifestation of OX40L on T cells offers been proven to induce spontaneous autoimmunity in C57BL/6 mice.23 A recently available research showed that OX40L expression on the subset of myeloid DCs is implicated within the pathogenesis of SLE.28 The beneficial aftereffect of blocking the OX40L-OX40 signalling pathway has been shown in several different mouse models of autoimmune diseases,17 but experimental evidence of its efficacy in SLE is unknown. We sought to understand the function of OX40L using CD4+?T?cell and B cell conditional knockout mice. We investigated the role of OX40L using immunisation and we went on to determine how the loss of OX40L affected the pathology in two different SLE mouse models. Materials and methods Mice A bacterial artificial chromosome?(BAC) clone encoding the extracellular domain and 3-untranslated region of was obtained from a C57BL/6-derived genomic library. The conditional targeting vector was constructed using recombineering,29 as described in online supplementary figure S1A. The mice (mice were bred in-house and B6.mice. Briefly, splenocytes were obtained as a single cell suspension by mashing the spleen collected through 70?m cell strainers using the plunger from a syringe. After lysis of the red blood cells, splenocytes were counted and resuspended at 5108 cells/mL in PBS and 100?L was injected in each mouse. Serum was collected on days 14, 28 and 42, and titres of IgG antibodies to double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid?(dsDNA) were measured by ELISA Itgbl1 using dsDNA (100?g/mL) or single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid?(ssDNA) (10?g/mL) in BBS buffer as coating antigen. Bound Abs were detected with AP-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (-chain particular) (Sigma-Aldrich) or IgM (Southern Biotechnology Affiliates). The outcomes were indicated as AEU in accordance with a typical positive sample produced from an MRL/Mpmice pool. Total serum IgM and IgG levels Total serum IgM and IgG levels were assayed by catch ELISA.

Introduction Ischemic brain injury because of stroke or various other pathologies is certainly a significant contributor to mortality and disability world-wide

Introduction Ischemic brain injury because of stroke or various other pathologies is certainly a significant contributor to mortality and disability world-wide. junction protein appearance had been also evaluated in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HMBVECs) subjected to oxygenCglucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R). Outcomes Juglanin significantly decreased beta-Interleukin I (163-171), human occlusion-induced infarct quantity and improved neurological rating by suppressing BBB hyperpermeability. Juglanin inhibited both the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 and restored the normal expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), two important tight junction proteins, in MCAO mice. Meanwhile, the results of in vitro experiments show that this protective effects of juglanin against increased BBB permeability and reduced tight junction functionality are dependent on the VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway, as evidenced by the capacity of exogenous VEGF-A to abolish the effects of juglanin. Conclusion Our findings indicate a potent ability of juglanin to prevent neuronal injury resulting from cerebral ischemia by modulating the VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Further research will help elucidate the exact mechanisms behind the protective effects of juglanin. and other plants, which has been shown to exert impressive anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Additionally, juglanin can hinder cancer progression.19 Presently, the effects of juglanin in ischemic brain injury are incompletely understood. Cyclic diarylheptanoids of the juglanin class have been shown to reduce neuronal cell death, including juglanin A and juglanin C isolated from em Juglans sinensis /em .20 Therefore, we hypothesized that juglanin might confer other neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of juglanin in an MCAO mouse model of ischemic stroke. We also performed a series of in vitro experiments using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVECs) to elucidate the mechanism of juglanin-mediated neuroprotection. Our findings show that juglanin may have potential as a treatment to prevent BBB hyperpermeability and reduce infarct volume. Materials and Methods Mouse Model and Drug Administration For our in vivo experiments, C57/BL6 mice were purchased from Jackson Laboratory. All animal experimentations in the present research were followed through in rigid accordance with the recommendations in the Guideline for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of Healths National beta-Interleukin I (163-171), human Organizations (National Institutes of Health, US). Animal experimental procedures were carried out beta-Interleukin I (163-171), human under a protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Qingdao University (NO. 20,160,332) and had been relative to Qingdao University suggestions for the treatment and usage of lab animals. Tests with human topics had been designed relative to the Globe Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki Moral Concepts for Medical Analysis Involving Human Topics. Human subject tests had been accepted PIK3CA by the ethics committee of Qingdao School (NO. 20,160,125). The mice had been split into four groupings: (1). Automobile group; (2) juglanin group; (3) MCAO group; (4) MCAO + juglanin group. In the MCAO groupings, mice had been put through cerebral ischemia by placing a operative filament in to the middle cerebral artery and shutting with sutures for 2 h, accompanied by reperfusion for 24 h. In the juglanin treatment group, mice had been treated with juglanin at a dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight via dental gavage for 3 weeks prior to the MCAO test, as defined above. After the mice acquired retrieved from anesthesia, effective ischemia/reperfusion damage was verified by identifying the beta-Interleukin I (163-171), human neurological deficit rating in every mice. TTC staining was utilized to determine infarct quantity. After TTC staining, the infarct area shows up in white in the striatum, cortex, and adjacent regions of the proper hemisphere. The infarct region was delimited and portrayed as a share from the contralateral regular region in the still left hemisphere. Neurological Deficit Scoring Method Neurological deficit was decided.

Data Availability StatementAll data analyzed and generated through the present research are one of them published content

Data Availability StatementAll data analyzed and generated through the present research are one of them published content. ([Ca2+]we) was analyzed utilizing a Ca2+-imaging technique. Additionally, proteins expression degrees of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase kinase (CaMKK)/5-monophosphate-activated proteins kinase (AMPK)/mammalian focus on of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway had been measured by traditional western blot evaluation. The outcomes demonstrated that autophagy was elevated within a pH-and time-dependent way with contact with an acidic environment. Furthermore, silencing ASIC1a reduced the appearance degrees of autophagy manufacturers considerably, associated with abrogation from the acid-induced [Ca2+]i boost. Furthermore, silencing of ASIC1a downregulated the levels of CaMKK/-actin and phosphorylated (p-) AMPK/AMPK, and upregulated the levels of p-mTOR/mTOR. These results indicated that ASIC1a is a potent regulator of autophagy in chondrocytes, which may be associated with decreased Ca2+ influx and the CaMKK/AMPK/mTOR PSI-7977 pathway. in the present study. The acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) is a member of the degenerin/Na+ channel superfamily, and is an insensitive cation channel triggered by extracellular protons (4). The ASIC family in mammals includes four genes, encoding seven subtypes, in which ASIC1a is the only subunit for the transport of Ca2+ (5-7). In addition to the part of synaptic plasticity, the activation and sensitization of ASIC1a is definitely involved in acidosis-induced ischemic mind damage caused by Ca2+ influx in neurons (8). Our earlier studies have shown that ASIC1a is definitely involved in the injury of articular chondrocytes caused by increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) induced by acidosis (9,10). Furthermore, the inhibition of ASIC1a was reported to confer a protecting effect on articular cartilage in adjuvant arthritis rats (10). Consequently, in the present study, the part of ASIC1a in the acid-induced activation of articular chondrocyte autophagy was further investigated. Autophagy, a cellular self-digestion process, is an essential, conserved, lysosomal degradation pathway that settings the quality of the cytoplasm by eliminating protein aggregates and broken organelles (11). Low degrees of autophagic activity are found under regular circumstances typically, presumably preserving regular mobile homeostasis (12). Furthermore to its essential homeostatic function, this degradation pathway is normally involved in several individual disorders, including metabolic disease, neurodegenerative illnesses, cancer tumor and inflammatory illnesses (13-16). It’s been reported that autophagy could be induced by different extracellular or intracellular indicators and tension, including nutritional depletion, hypoxia, development aspect deprivation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tension, the deposition of unfolded protein, heat surprise and microbial an infection (17). A prior research indicated that autophagy may protect cells from acidosis-induced cell harm (18). Furthermore, autophagy was reported to become turned on in osteoarthritis versions (19). Nevertheless, whether autophagy could be induced by acidic arousal in rat articular chondrocytes continues to be to be completely elucidated. Three autophagy-related protein, microtubule-associated proteins 1 light string 3II (LC3II), uncoordinated-51 like kinase 1 (ULK1) and Beclin1, had been chosen as markers from the level of autophagy in today’s PSI-7977 research. Additionally, it’s been discovered that influx of Ca2+ is normally closely connected with autophagy (20). The activation of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a was been shown to be in charge of acidosis-mediated ischemic human brain injury due to Ca2+ influx in neurons (7). Predicated on these results, the present research aimed GLB1 to research if the inhibition of ASIC1a was mixed up in activation of autophagy through influencing Ca2+ influx. Mammalian focus on of rapamycin (mTOR) is really a serine/threonine proteins kinase that regulates cell development, proliferation, motility, success, protein transcription and synthesis. Substantial evidence signifies that PSI-7977 mTOR features as a poor regulator of autophagy (21). Furthermore, rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, provides been shown to improve autophagy in a number of cell types, including chondrocytes (22-24). Prior studies have got indicated which the calcium/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinases, a grouped category of serine/threonine kinases attentive to intracellular Ca2+ focus, might have regulatory assignments in autophagy. CaMKK, a significant person in the grouped family members, may work as an upstream kinase for adenosine 5-monophosphate (AMP)-turned on proteins kinase (AMPK) and regulate autophagy in response to elevations in cytosolic calcium mineral through B-cell lymphoma 2 (25). It’s been demonstrated that AMPK, by inducing tuberous sclerosis complicated 1/2-Rheb inhibition of mTOR, can be essential in chondrocyte autophagy (26,27). Taking into consideration the aforementioned outcomes, these proteins may be involved with acid-induced autophagy..

Supplementary Materialscells-08-00243-s001

Supplementary Materialscells-08-00243-s001. FGFR1 kinase within the nucleus also did not result in signaling changes or neurite outgrowth. We conclude that FGFR1 kinase needs to be associated with membranes to induce the differentiation of PC12 cells mainly via ERK activation. 0.0001. Scale bars = 10 m. 3.4. Neuronal Differentiation of PC12 Cells Induced by Blue Light PC12 cells exhibited no spontaneous or FGF2-induced neurite outgrowth, suggesting that the clone used in the present study does not express significant levels of endogenous FGF receptors (Figure 5A and Figure S5). In fact, all four FGFR mRNAs are endogenously expressed but the levels are low, Upadacitinib (ABT-494) particularly for FGFR1 (Figure S5E). Two days after treatment with NGF, neuronal differentiation was observed (Figure 5B; 120 11.9 m total neurite length, TNL, Body 5K; 52.7 4 m of maximal neurite length, MD, Body 5L; 2.6 0.12 procedures extending through the cell body, Body 5M). Cells transiently transfected with FGFR1CeGFP uncovered considerably longer neurites in comparison to naive cells (Body 5C) and elevated neurite initiation (Body 5M). FGF2 treatment further improved neuronal differentiation with lengthy neurites (Body 5D). Even though autoactivation of mV-mem-opto-FGFR1 induced minor neurite outgrowth at night state (Body 5E), blue light excitement resulted in significantly elevated neuronal differentiation (Body 5F,K) that was considerably inhibited by prior PD98059 treatment (Body S6). A substantial increase in the amount of neurites increasing from mV-mem-opto-FGFR1-transfected cells after blue light excitement was observed in addition to considerably longer neurites in comparison with NGF and FGF2 treatment (Body 5L,M). Upadacitinib (ABT-494) Cells expressing either mV-nucl-opto-FGFR1 or mV-cyto-opto-FGFR1 demonstrated flattened, spindle-shaped morphology with brief cytoplasmic extensions but didn’t grow procedures longer than one cell body in diameter (Physique 5GCJ). Open in a separate window Physique 5 Ligand- and light-induced neurite outgrowth by pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. (ACJ) Inverted immunofluorescence images following neuron-specific class III -tubulin staining to identify neurites (red nuclei in nucl-opto-FGFR1 cells allow identification of transfected cells in I/J). (KCM) Quantification of morphological parameters (total neurite outgrowth, Rabbit polyclonal to Notch2 longest process and number of processes per cell; see Physique S1 for details). Results are calculated from three impartial experiments Upadacitinib (ABT-494) and presented as mean SEM (50 n 100), * 0.05, **** 0.0001. Scale bars = 50 m. 4. Discussion Light-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors (e.g., rhodopsin) occur naturally, whereas light-sensitive receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) need to be artificially produced. Recent studies have been aimed at subcellular targeting of Upadacitinib (ABT-494) opto-TrkA and light-gated adenylate cyclase [20,21]. In addition, various membrane-associated opto-RTK constructs were synthesized, such as opto-TrkB [22] and three different opto-FGFR1 constructs [15,23,24]. One of the light-activated FGFR1 proteins (through the homointeraction of cryptochrome 2) induced cell polarization and directed cell migration through changes in the actinCtubulin cytoskeleton [23]. Furthermore, opto-FGFR1 was applied for light-induced sprouting of human bronchial epithelial cells [15]. The opto-FGFR1 constructs used here were designed for specific targeting of the kinase domain name to only the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus, respectively, to investigate the possible effects of subcellular FGFR kinase activation on signal pathway induction and neurite outgrowth as a biological read-out. Similarly to full-length FGFR1, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that mV-mem-opto-FGFR1s were anchored to the plasma membrane, internalized and transported to multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/late endosomes and lysosomes [25,26]. Although our construct was expected to only attach to membranes.