factors Prenatal hypoxia a common outcome of many pregnancy

factors Prenatal hypoxia a common outcome of many pregnancy complications predisposes offspring to chronic diseases in H3FL later life. male and female rat offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia. AbbreviationsACCacetyl CoA carboxylaseAMPKAMP‐activated protein kinaseCVDcardiovascular diseaseDHEdihydroethidiumHFhigh‐fatI/Rischaemia-reperfusionIUGRintrauterine growth restrictionIVSinterventricular septalLVleft ventricleLVIDleft ventricular internal diameterLVPWleft ventricular posterior wallEDVend diastolic volumeESVend systolic volumeIVRTisovolumic relaxation time Introduction Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that populations who are exposed to prenatal hypoxia are more susceptible to developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in later life (Giussani & Davidge 2013 Demicheva & Crispi 2014 thereby linking prenatal hypoxia and postnatal metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Many pregnancy complications result in fetal hypoxia and offspring born from complicated pregnancies have been shown to have altered cardiac morphology and cardiac dysfunction in prenatal (Hecher (NIH publication No. 85‐23 revised 1996). Animal models Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-275?g were obtained (Charles River Quebec Canada) and housed in a temperature controlled room with a 10?h:14?h light-dark cycle. After acclimatization for a week they were mated overnight and pregnancy was confirmed (day 0) by the presence of sperm SU11274 in a vaginal smear obtained the following morning. Pregnant dams were fed standard chow (Lab Diet Ref. 5001; 3.02?kcal?mg?1; protein 23% fat 4.5% fibre 6%) throughout pregnancy. On day 15 of pregnancy dams were randomly assigned to normoxia or maternal hypoxia protocols. Pregnant dams in the hypoxia protocol were individually housed in a Plexiglas chamber where the oxygen concentration was maintained at 11% by the continuous infusion of nitrogen gas during the last third of pregnancy (from day 15 to 21). This model results in fetal hypoxia ((Rueda‐Clausen micro‐imaging system Vevo 2100 (Visualsonics Toronto ON Canada) equipped with a SU11274 13-23?MHz linear array transducer (Ram EF LVEDV LVESV LVEDV FS LVI LVI LVESV LV mass LVI LVP IV LVI test using Prism 6 software (GraphPad Software San Diego CA USA). A value of ??0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Effect of prenatal hypoxia on fetal phenotype SU11274 at birth We have established an animal model of low birth weight using prenatal hypoxia as an insult and also have thoroughly characterized the fetal final results at delivery in our prior research (Dolinsky and and and and and and evaluation of entire body structure using echo magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that there have been no significant distinctions in whole surplus fat and low fat tissue structure among the groupings in male (Fig.?3 and and and cardiac function We’ve previously demonstrated that prenatal hypoxia alters cardiac morphometry (cardiac hypertrophy) in SU11274 12?months old but not in 4?months old in male however not feminine offspring (Rueda‐Clausen data revealed that there have been no significant distinctions in heart pounds or still left ventricular pounds in either man (Fig.?6 and and data echocardiography data revealed that cardiac morphometry (LV septal and posterior wall structure width LV mass and LV internal diameters) was unaltered by prenatal hypoxia and postnatal HF diet plan in man (Desk 1) or feminine (Desk 2) offspring. There is an interaction impact in LV end systole septal width and end diastole posterior wall structure width with SU11274 opposing ramifications of resveratrol in normoxia cardiac morphometry Desk 1 Echocardiographic assessments in man normoxia and prenatal hypoxia‐open offspring Desk 2 Echocardiographic assessments in feminine normoxia and prenatal hypoxia‐open offspring In man (Desk 1) and feminine (Desk 2) offspring cardiac result LV ejection small fraction and LV shortening small fraction were not considerably different among the groupings indicating the lack of systolic dysfunction in offspring subjected to prenatal hypoxia.