Data Availability StatementAll data generated or analyzed during the present study

Data Availability StatementAll data generated or analyzed during the present study are included in this published article. further research and treatment of HCC. (5) reported that 60% of patients were diagnosed with late-stage HCC following metastasis, resulting in a 16% overall 5-year survival rate (6). However, if an appropriate diagnosis and treatment can be used in the early stage of HCC, the 5-year survival rate TH-302 manufacturer of patients may increase by 75% (7). Therefore, an effective way to detect HCC at early stage would improve the outcomes for patients significantly. At present, the diagnosis of HCC remains largely dependent on invasive biopsy, imaging methods, including magnetic resonance imaging, 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized topography and serum -fetoprotein testing (1,8). The limited sensitivity and specificity of these methods result in poor quality and a low diagnosis rate. Therefore, the identification of TH-302 manufacturer biomarkers with a higher sensitivity and specificity is vital for HCC diagnosis, particulalry for earlier stages of HCC (9). A previous study reported that urine and serum contain a lot of metabolic information that may be altered underlying HCC, which may be used as new biomarkers for TH-302 manufacturer HCC diagnosis (10). Additionally, the level of glycocholic acid (GCA) in patients with HCC is significantly increased, compared with healthy individuals (11). GCA has been identified as a specific and sensitive biomarker for HCC in urine and serum (12,13). GCA, a secondary bile acid and one of the main components of bile acids, is formed by the conjugation of cholic acid and glycine, which assists in the digestion and the absorption of fat in Rabbit Polyclonal to IRF-3 (phospho-Ser385) food, in addition to being located in the bile as a sodium salt (14). Numerous studies reported that GCA may serve as a superior clinical marker to detect liver diseases, compared with the traditional markers, including serum alpha fetoprotein, blood enzymology and metabolomics (13,15,16). Analysis of GCA in combination with other diagnostic indicators provides a more sensitive background for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of liver diseases (17). Additionally, the level of GCA is also a vital diagnostic indicator for various biliary system diseases, including intrahepatic cholestasis and alcoholic liver injury (18). Currently, a number of methods have been reported for the analysis of GCA, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (19), ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-high-definition mass spectrometry (12), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (20) and macromolecular crowding agents-assisted imprinted polymers (13). However, these methods come with a high cost as they require a well-equipped laboratory and well-trained professionals (19,20). Therefore, there is a great demand for developing a more economical, reliable and rapid method to detect GCA. In the present study, a novel anti-GCA monoclonal antibody (mAb) was generated, in which low 50% inhibitory rate (IC50), high specificity and sensitivity for GCA binding were reached. Furthermore, by this novel development of mAb, an effective indirect competitive ELISA method (icELISA) has been established to detect GCA. Therefore, a simple, rapid and efficient method was successfully developed to detect GCA for the diagnosis of early-stage HCC, in addition to providing novel insights for further research and treatment of HCC. Materials and methods Immunogen preparation Human GCA hydrate (C26H43NO6.xH2O) synthesized by Sigma-Aldrich (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) was conjugated to the carrier protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA; BioFroxxx, Germany), by the active ester method through amide bonds (21,22), using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as the dehydrating agents. A total of 10 mg GCA was mixed with 100 l 2-(morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid buffered saline (0.5 M NaCl, pH 6.0) and conjugated to BSA at the molecular ratio of 100:1 in 500 ml conjugation buffer (PBS; pH=7.2C7.4). Following incubation at room temperature for 2 h, GCA-BSA conjugate (GCA-BSA) was purified.