Background We had earlier used the comparison of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) DNA fingerprinting profiles of tumor and corresponding normal DNA to identify genetic alterations in primary human glial tumors. IV, were shown to have Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus by microsatellite (intragenic) and by SNP markers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed low FAT mRNA levels in a major subset of tumors. Conclusion These results point to a role of the FAT in astrocytic tumorigenesis and demonstrate the use of RAPD analysis in identifying specific alterations in astrocytic tumors. Background Astrocytic tumors are the most frequent human gliomas; they are the second most common cause of cancer mortality in young adults after leukemia. WHO has classified astrocytic tumors into 4 grades . Grade I (Pilocytic Astrocytomas) have a benign outcome and have genetic pathways that differ from the three higher grades. However Grades II to IV follow the same lineage of progression and Grade II (Low-grade Diffuse Astrocytomas, DA) have an inherent tendency to progress to grade III (Anaplastic Astrocytoma, AA) and grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme, GBM)[2,3]. Molecular alterations associated with these histopathological classes have also been identified and studied extensively. The median survival time of Grade II and IV tumors is 6 years and 1 520-27-4 manufacture year respectively , and over the years, not much has changed 520-27-4 manufacture regarding their outcome. Malignant transformation of glial cells is a complex process that is still incompletely understood [6,7]. We had earlier used RAPD-DNA fingerprinting techniques  to identify alterations in tumor DNA in a manner not selected for locus [9,10]. While RAPD primers define distinct loci, their selection is random and not locus based. We have also used this technique to measure the extent of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity [11,12] and genomic instability in high and low grade tumors  and the role of repeat sequences in the generation of instability [14,15]. This technique scans the whole genome for complimentarity at any locus and thus enhances the chances of detecting novel altered genomic regions in tumors. Furthermore, RAPD screening can be performed on a small amount of tumor DNA (50C100 ng of DNA 520-27-4 manufacture per PCR). This is important because of the possibility of shearing and low retrieval after extracting tumor DNA from cryostat sections. 520-27-4 manufacture In most of our earlier studies we concentrated on genomic instability i.e. the RAPD changes, which varied from tumor to tumor. In this study, we have used the RAPD-PCR technique to identify and characterize novel alterations in the human astrocytic 520-27-4 manufacture tumors of WHO grade II (DA) and grade IV (GBM) using normal leucocyte DNA of the same patient as control. The altered bands (gained, amplified or lost) in the tumor RAPD profiles are used to document, quantify and characterize the nature of alterations. We focused on the alterations that were common to a significant proportion (more than Fam162a 25%) of the astrocytic tumors studied and characterized one of them. This was done in order to identify genomic changes that may be significant to the tumorigenic process. We initially used five different primers to compare the RAPD profile of 23 astrocytic tumors (12 grade II and 11 grade IV) with their corresponding normal leucocyte DNA. One altered band, which was absent in the RAPD profile of 33% of the Grade II tumors studied, was found to be homologous to the tumor suppressor gene ‘FAT’ on chromosome 4q34-35. Heterozygosity.