Background People today are living longer and want to remain active. and unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA), as well as the time it takes. Methods PRISMA guidelines were followed and our study protocol was published online at PROSPERO under registration number CRD42014009370. Based on the keywords (and synonyms of) arthroplasty, sports and recovery of function, the databases MEDLINE, Embase and SPORTDiscus up to January 5, 2015 were searched. Articles concerning TKA or UKA patients who recovered their wearing capacity, or intended to, were included and were rated by outcomes of our interest. Methodological quality was assessed using Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) and data extraction was performed using a standardised extraction form, both conducted by two impartial investigators. Results Out of 1115 hits, 18 original studies were included. According to QUIPS, three studies had a low risk of bias. Overall RTS varied from 36 to 89?% after TKA and from 75 to >100?% after UKA. The meta-analysis revealed that participation in sports seems more likely after UKA than after TKA, with mean numbers of sports per patient postoperatively of 1 1.1C4.6 after UKA and 0.2C1.0 after TKA. PA level was higher after UKA than after TKA, but a pattern towards lower-impact sports was shown after both TKA and UKA. Mean time to RTS after TKA and UKA was 13 and 12 weeks, respectively, concerning low-impact types of sports in more than 90?% of cases. Conclusions Rabbit polyclonal to ZNF317 Low- and higher-impact sports after both TKA and UKA are possible, but it is usually clear that buy Eriodictyol more patients RTS (including higher-impact types of sports) after UKA buy Eriodictyol than after TKA. However, the overall quality of included studies was limited, mainly because confounding factors were inadequately taken into account in most studies. Electronic buy Eriodictyol supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0421-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Key Points Introduction Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are progressively restricted in their daily functioning, working and sports activities, making them less active than they would like to buy Eriodictyol be. A knee arthroplasty (KA) is usually a well accepted, reliable and suitable surgical procedure for end-stage OA patients to relieve pain, to return to function, and to improve health-related quality of life . However, literature concerning the extent to which patients can return to sports (RTS) and physical activity (PA) after both total (TKA) and unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) is usually sparse. People are not only living longer than before, they also want to stay active and engaged in their working activities up to and after retiring [1, 2]. According to demographic projections in the Netherlands, it is expected that the number of OA patients will increase exponentially between 2007 and 2040. Subsequently, an increase in KAs of 297?% from 2005 to 2030 is usually envisaged, resulting in 57,900 KAs annually in 2030 . This increase is not only due to more, relatively younger patients with knee OA that want to preserve an active lifestyle without knee pain, but also to the growing burden of the obesity epidemic. For example, in the US, the demand for primary KAs is usually estimated to grow even more, by 673?% from 2005 to 2030, leading to 3.5 million annual procedures . There is overwhelming evidence that a sedentary lifestyle is usually undeniably one of the most serious health problems of the 21st century [5, 6]. As a consequence, peoples wish to stay active has been stimulated by several leading international organisations that have recognised the positive effects of PA in general. International guidelines of health-enhancing PA levels have been developed and exercise is usually medicine is usually proclaimed, by stating that PA can ameliorate affluence-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer . Moreover, PA has proven to have beneficial effects on bone quality and implant fixation . Since the prevalence of OA affecting the knee is usually rising rapidly, this disease is currently one of the leading causes of disability in adults. Due to osteoarthritic pain, physical deconditioning arises, resulting in reduced endurance for exercise, less aerobic capacity, less muscle strength, and a high risk for being overweight. Consequently, individuals with OA greatly fall short of the public health PA guidelines . The possible benefits of total knee alternative in terms of pain relief and restoration of function are well documented, but impacts on health, fitness and the lower risk for coronary heart disease have also been addressed in patients who had been able to resume activities after KA . Even a possible cardioprotective benefit of primary total joint arthroplasty has.