Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary information. sequencing datasets from genome. We also mapped both satellite DNAs in types. We conclude that CapA genomic distribution and its pervasiveness across Platyrrhini makes it a stylish cytogenetic marker for and additional New World monkeys. (Cebidae, Platyrrhini) are medium sized neotropical primates inhabiting forest environments of South America. They range from about 10N to 17S including the PDE9-IN-1 Amazon basin, the Guianas, and coastal zones of Central America1,2. As for many other New World monkey (NWM) taxa the phylogenetic associations within the genus are still debated3. Actually the number of varieties is definitely uncertain, historically ranging from one to 16 distinguished varieties4C11. In a recent molecular statement on mitochondrial D-Loop and cyt sequences, Alfaro varieties and various subspecies: (1) (A, B, and C), (3) (and (A, B, and C lineages), and (7) have a diploid quantity of 2n?=?44, but can differ in fundamental figures (FN, the number of chromosome arms) which range from 74 to PDE9-IN-1 7812. Variations in FN in have traditionally been indicated as the number of acrocentric chromosomes, with five (FN?=?78) to seven pairs (FN?=?74). FN variance was thought to correlate with geographic distribution and taxonomy. Relating to Jones were previously thought to be the result of pericentric inversions and reciprocal translocations14C16 PDE9-IN-1 but recently Chiatante genomes, including their satDNAs, are largely unexplored. In this work, we used bioinformatic and cytogenetic tools to characterize the satDNAs of genome, respectively. The alpha satDNA offers ~340?bp, a centromeric location and high interspecific monomer homogeneity, while CapA has ~1500?bp and is associated with constitutive heterochromatin. This satDNA was mainly located in distal regions of the short arms and in the interstitial heterochromatin of some chromosomes, showing different chromosome localization among species. Novel markers may help to clarify the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among taxa. Results Chromosome banding The 12 individuals analyzed presented the expected diploid number of 2n?=?44, but their fundamental numbers (FNs) varied due to the presence of different numbers of acrocentric chromosomes, which ranged from 10 to 14 (five to seven pairs) (Table?1). The karyotypes were arranged according to Stanyon (SSC782, SSC770 and SSC2) had a FN?=?74 and both pairs 5 and 15 were acrocentric. The (SBO1) and the two specimens (SVA321 and SVA 322) had a FN?=?76 with a submetacentric pair 5 and an acrocentric pair 15. All the samples (SUS739, SUS740, SUS742, SUS746, PDE9-IN-1 SUS747 and SUS786) had a FN?=?78 and both pairs 5 and 15 were submetacentric. These results supported previous conclusions12 that centromere shifts in pairs 5 and 15 explained the morphological variation of these chromosomes and the consequent differences in FNs (Fig.?1a; Supplementary Fig.?S1). Open in a separate window Figure 1 (a) Representative karyotype with FN?=?78 and five acrocentric pairs, pairs 5 and 15 are submetacentric (SUS 739); the lower panels show the acrocentric pairs 5 and 15 (SSC 770, SSC 782, SSC2); submetacentric pair 5 and acrocentric 15 (SBO1, SVA 321 and SVA 322), submetacentric pairs 5 and 15 (SUS). (b) CBG-banded karyotype with FN?=?76 (SVA PDE9-IN-1 321), and in the boxes below pairs 2, 5, 15 and 14 from (SSC), (SBO), (SVA) and (SUS). Chromosome pair 2 is highlighted in blue, pair 5 in green, pair 14 in gray and pair 15 in pink. STMN1 Bar = 10 m. CBG-banding revealed, in addition to the pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin, the presence of distal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks in several chromosome pairs (Fig.?1b; Supplementary Fig.?S2). The distribution and abundance of distal and interstitial heterochromatin was slightly different between species. Generally, distal CBG bands were located in the short arms of submetacentric chromosomes. In all analyzed specimens, heterochromatic blocks were.