the start of the 1990s a fresh class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) MEN-1 (CTX-M-1) was characterized in strains isolated from Italian and German patients (1 2 CTX-M-1 was the first person in the CTX-M β-lactamase family which now comprises nine people: CTX-M-1 (MEN-1) (1 2 CTX-M-2 (2) Toho-1 (7) CTX-M-3 (6) CTX-M-4 (6) CTX-M-5 (4) Toho-2 (8) CTX-M-6 (5) CTX-M-7 (5) and CTX-M-8 (3). (4-7 10 11 and Japan (8 9 Throughout a multicenter study of ESBLs in France in 1998 (C. De Champs D. Sirot C. Chanal J. Sirot as well as the French Research Group Abstr. 39th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Real estate agents Chemother. abstr. 149.C2-1485 p. 169 1999 an stress (Ver-1) was chosen for its level of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and an optimistic double-disk synergy check. This stress was isolated from a 56-year-old guy admitted to the Versailles Hospital (Le Chesnay France) with unbalanced non-insulin-dependent diabetes and severe arteriopathy. His last hospitalization was in 1996 for noninfected urinary tract retention. He had osteitis and a foot ulcer infected by a strain. After 2 days of treatment with oxacillin the strain Ver-1 was isolated from a urine sample collected for dysuria. This colonization was not treated. Ver-1 was also resistant to tetracycline co-trimoxazole gentamicin and tobramycin. The ESBL phenotype was transferred to HB101 resistant to rifampin at 37°C during an overnight mating assay on solid Mueller-Hinton medium containing rifampin (300 μg/ml). The transconjugant designated TrVer-1 did not exhibit cotransferred resistance markers. Table ?Table11 shows the MICs of β-lactams determined by the agar dilution method for the strain Ver-1 and its transconjugant TrVer-1. These two strains were resistant to penicillins. MICs of cefotaxime (128 to 32 μg/ml) were 16- to 64-fold higher than those of ceftazidime (8 to 0.5 μg/ml). The β-lactam inhibitors clavulanate and tazobactam SNS-314 restored partially or totally the susceptibilities to piperacillin and cephalosporins. TABLE 1 MICs of β-lactams for isolate Ver-1 and its transconjugant TrVer-1 in comparison with wild-type and TEM-1-producing?transconjugant were subjected to analytical isoelectric focusing over the pH range of 3 to 10. Both and its transconjugant produced a β-lactamase of isoelectric point 8.4 associated with a β-lactamase of pI 5.4. PCR and direct DNA sequencing identified the β-lactamase of pI 5.4 as TEM-1 penicillinase. No PCR products were obtained with SNS-314 primers specific for and strains at Praski Hospital in Poland (8). This enzyme has spread in other species of the (clone in Russia Greece and Hungary. However the emergence of CTX-M enzymes from widespread environmental bacteria could also explain their spread. During the study of ESBLs (De Champs et SNS-314 al. 39 ICAAC) which led to characterization of these CTX-M-3-producing strains 79 ESBL-producing strains were isolated. Only one CTX-M-producing strain was observed. This CTX-M-3-producing strain appears to be a sporadic isolate Thus. However in watch of the pass on of CTX-M-producing strains in East Europe introduction of CTX-M-producing strains could possibly be seen in France. The characterization of the CTX-M-3-producing stress features the feasibility of the process and takes its forewarning from the possible lifetime of CTX-M-producing strains in France. Sources 1 Barthelemy M Peduzzi J Bernard H Tancrede C Labia R. Close amino acidity sequence relationship between your brand-new plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamase Guys-1 and chromosomally encoded enzymes of isolated in Brazil. Antimicrob Agencies Chemother. 2000;44:1936-1942. [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] 4 Bradford P A Yang Y Sahm D Grope I Gardovska D Storch G. CTX-M-5 a book cefotaxime-hydrolyzing β-lactamase from an outbreak of in Latvia. Antimicrob Agencies Chemother. 1998;42:1980-1984. [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] 5 Gazouli M Tzelepi E Markogiannakis A Legakis N J Tzouvelekis L S. Two book plasmid-mediated cefotaxime-hydrolyzing β-lactamases (CTX-M-5 and CTX-M-6) from isolates from a medical center in Warsaw Poland: id of a fresh CTX-M-3 cefotaxime-hydrolyzing β-lactamase that’s closely linked to the CTX-M-1/Guys-1 enzyme. Antimicrob Agencies TIE1 Chemother. 1998;42:827-832. [PMC free of charge content] [PubMed] 8 Ishii Y Ohno A Taguchi H Imajo S Ishiguro M Matsuzawa H. Cloning and series from the gene encoding a cefotaxime-hydrolyzing course A β-lactamase isolated from within a Warsaw medical center. J Antimicrob SNS-314 Chemother. 1999;44:489-499. [PubMed] 11 Tassios P T Gazouli M Tzelepi E Milch H Kozlova N Sidorenko S Legakis N J Tzouvelekis L S. Pass on of the clone resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins SNS-314 in three Europe. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3774-3777. [PMC free of charge article].