Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI. Global warming undoubtedly results from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions1. Nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are three GHGs of major concern that are emitted from agricultural soils2; however, large amounts of carbon can also be fixed in soil-crop systems through photosynthesis3. The net exchange of CH4, N2O and CO2 in terms of CO2 equivalents between soils and the atmosphere comprises the net global warming potential (NGWP) of a cropping system4, which can also be expressed on the basis of per unit of yield (greenhouse gas intensity, GHGI)3. Agriculture is an important source of CH4 and N2O2, accounting for 50% and 60% of total global anthropogenic CH4 and N2O emissions, respectively, in 20055. Rice paddy fields have been identified as a major source of CH4 emission to the atmosphere; N2O is mainly generated by upland fields and is also produced from rice fields because of midseason drainage 25451-15-4 supplier and moist irrigation6,7. The rice harvest in China, which averaged 30?M ha from 2010 to 2013, accounts for 18.7% of the worlds total8, and the total CH4 emissions from Chinese rice paddies are estimated to be 7.41 Tg CH4 year?1, 29.9% of the worlds total (25.5 Tg CH4 year?1)9. Additionally, direct N2O emission during the rice-growing season, which was measured at a rate of 32.3 Gg N2O-N in the 1990s, is in charge of 8C11% of the full total N2O emission from Chinese language croplands10. Double grain (DR) and upland crop-single 25451-15-4 supplier grain (UR) annual rotations are two main grain systems in China, with 75% of grain areas implementing these techniques11. Many reports possess centered on N2O and CH4 emissions from 25451-15-4 supplier UR7,12 and DR systems13,14,15 separately. Previous data predicated on container experiments reveal that different cropping systems bring about different levels of N2O emission from paddy areas16, and specific field research possess reported adjustable CH4 emissions among cropping systems12 also,13. However, no field research to day offers concurrently tackled CH4 and N2O emissions from different grain cropping systems. Moreover, to our knowledge, the differences in NGWP and GHGI between different rice cropping systems have not been documented. Straw return has been widely recommended for agricultural ecosystems in China. Chinese agriculture produces approximately 620 Tg of crop straw every year, with an increasing trend of an annual rate of 1 1.4%17, and approximately 25% of the straw is currently returned to the field18. Indeed, straw incorporation is a common practice in rice production, as it helps to maintain soil quality and recycle mineral nutrients19. Straw incorporation also offers a significant impact on N2O and CH4 via adjustments in garden soil properties, like the porosity, moisture20 and temperature,21. Generally, straw incorporation can boost carbon sequestration, leading to improved garden soil atmosphere and efficiency quality, and offset GHG emissions from grain areas as a result. However, a substantial excitement of CH4 emission because of straw incorporation in grain areas continues to be well recorded22,23,24. On the other hand, straw incorporation inhibits7,12 or does not have any significant impact25 on N2O emission from grain areas. Nonetheless, the system where straw addition impacts carbon sequestration aswell as CH4 and N2O emissions and GHGI in various grain cropping systems continues to be unknown. Predicated on earlier research, we hypothesize that (1) different grain cropping systems may differ greatly in CH4 and N2O emissions due to drastic flooding periods and (2) straw incorporation may result in different influences on CH4 and N2O emissions from different rice cropping systems. To test these hypotheses, a field experiment was established to measure CH4 and N2O emissions and SOC changes between the two major rice cropping systems in China. The objectives were to gain insight into the differences in grain yield, NGWP and GHGI between UR and DR systems as affected by straw application. Results CH4 emission Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates that annual CH4 emission depended strongly on the cropping system, straw incorporation, and their Rabbit Polyclonal to Cytochrome P450 2D6 interactions (Table 1). Inter-annual variation was also.